After my PhD in 1982, I did my postdoctoral research in Canada and USA before I was hired on a researcher position at CNRS in 1985. My main research interest is concerned with the neural substrates of spatial cognition (more specifically, spatial navigation and memory). My recent research has focused on the properties of single cell firing in navigating animals. For example, I am investigating the nature of the coupling between the spatial firing of place cells and navigation performance to establish whether place cells participate in an important way in the calculation of paths. Emphasis is also put on the interplay between the hippocampus and several neocortical areas (e.g., prefrontal or parietal cortex) thought to subserve distinct functions in spatial processing.